Within the midst of a match, it might appear as if some referees have private vendettas or a heightened sense of affinity towards sure golf equipment, nevertheless it’s fairly troublesome to show that idea. We will speculate all we would like, however looking on the information might shed some mild on what’s probably occurring relating to officiator biases.
Particularly how usually referees hand out yellow and crimson playing cards in prime soccer leagues the world over, we are able to examine and distinction the refereeing tendencies on each macro and micro ranges. For instance, which league’s golf equipment get carded essentially the most total? Which referees are essentially the most trigger-happy? Do sure referees goal some golf equipment greater than others or have clear favourites? Learn on to search out out.
Seeing Pink (or Yellow)
Let’s see which league’s referees usually tend to problem yellow or crimson playing cards, and which are inclined to let issues slide extra usually.
- • La Liga referees hand out essentially the most yellow playing cards per match, on common (5.07), whereas English Premier League referees hand out the least (3.19).
- • Ligue 1 referees hand out essentially the most crimson playing cards per match, on common (0.27), whereas English Premier League referees hand out the least (0.13).
The referees in Spanish top-flight soccer had been essentially the most trigger-happy when it got here to allotting yellow playing cards – the playing cards used to warning gamers for his or her on-field actions or behaviour. With a median of 5.07 yellows given per recreation, they handed out almost 0.5 greater than the following league, Italy’s Serie A.
Pink playing cards had been usually a lot much less seemingly for use, however the information exhibits Ligue 1 match officers felt the necessity to use them essentially the most. In contrast to the yellow card, when a participant sees crimson, they’re promptly ejected from the match. Two yellow playing cards will lead to a crimson one, however the latter could be given straight away if the participant’s motion or behaviour is deemed extreme sufficient.
That’s a Warning
Which referees are quickest to e book a participant, and what number of really feel the necessity to pull the crimson card?
The referees that handed out essentially the most playing cards per recreation, on common, within the prime 5 European soccer leagues had been as follows:
- • Josè Antonio Teixeira Vitienes (La Liga) – 7.14 yellow playing cards and 0.38 crimson playing cards
- • Fabio Maresca (Serie A) – 5.51 yellow playing cards and 0.34 crimson playing cards
- • Stèphane Lannoy (Ligue 1) – 4.56 yellow playing cards and 0.26 crimson playing cards
- • Thorsten Kinhöfer (Bundesliga) – 4.37 yellow playing cards and 0.24 crimson playing cards
- • Stuart Attwell (English Premier League) – 3.67 yellow playing cards and 0.14 crimson playing cards
Throughout the highest 5 leagues since 2011, La Liga referee José Antonio Teixeira Vitienes is the king of yellow playing cards. The truth is, the primary 9 referees liable for handing out essentially the most yellow playing cards all officiate matches within the Spanish league, and within the prime 20, solely referees from the Spanish and Italian leagues are listed. In the meantime, Lee Mason, who works within the English Premier League, was the least prone to flash a yellow. He’s retiring from on-pitch refereeing on the finish of the 2020-21 soccer season, which might disappoint any gamers who had been used to getting away with questionable behaviour below Mason’s watch.
For extra critical match violations, Spanish referee César Muñiz Fernández was the quickest to eject a participant from the sport, whereas Bundesliga official Robert Kampka virtually by no means reached for the crimson card.
Some Extra Than Others
Some golf equipment get punished for his or her on-field behaviour greater than others. Do sure referees self-discipline particular golf equipment extra usually?
The golf equipment that obtained essentially the most playing cards per recreation, on common, within the prime 5 European soccer leagues had been as follows:
- • Getafe CF (La Liga) – 3.46 complete playing cards
- • SPAL (Serie A) – 2.90 complete playing cards
- • Monaco (Ligue 1) – 2.29 complete playing cards
- • Fortuna Düsseldorf (Bundesliga) – 2.24 complete playing cards
- • Watford (English Premier League) – 2.04 complete playing cards
No membership obtained extra playing cards than Getafe CF, who’re handed 3.46 per recreation, on common. As talked about, Spanish and Italian referees appear to be harsher on their gamers, as golf equipment based mostly in these two nations are essentially the most carded up till the thirty first membership, which is France-based Monaco with a extra modest 2.29 playing cards per recreation.
Taking a more in-depth take a look at Getafe CF, we are able to see that one referee, Javier Turienzo Álvarez, fingers out a whopping six playing cards per recreation to this membership, on common. Ranked third amongst referees who hand out essentially the most playing cards throughout prime leagues, his no-nonsense strategy has been a thorn in Getafe CF’s aspect. On prime of that, the membership has had a disastrous begin to their season, shedding their first six video games in a row – they may profit from somebody a bit of extra Lee Mason-esque officiating their video games for the rest of the season.
Some golf equipment are usually handled favourably, others don’t. Let’s see who’s getting which finish of the stick.
The European soccer golf equipment that skilled essentially the most bias in their favour within the final 10 years had been the next:
- • FC Barcelona (La Liga) – 0.76
- • Napoli (Serie A) – 0.74
- • Nîmes (Ligue 1) – 0.82
- • Borussia Dortmund (Bundesliga) – 0.8
- • AFC Bournemouth (English Premier League) – 0.42
The European soccer golf equipment that skilled essentially the most bias in opposition to them within the final 10 years had been the next:
- • Leganés (La Liga) – -0.59
- • Chievo (Serie A) – -0.53
- • Dijon (Ligue 1) – -0.4
- • Hannover 96 (Bundesliga) – -0.43
- • Fulham (English Premier League) – -0.5
No membership was topic to extra constructive bias during the last 10 years than Nîmes. Though the membership solely spent three years in top-flight soccer in France throughout that point span, they had been carded considerably much less of their matches than their opponents had been. FC Barcelona, Napoli, Borussia Dortmund, and AFC Bournemouth skilled essentially the most constructive biases of their respective leagues.
Alternatively, Leganés, who presently play in La Liga 2 (second division Spanish soccer), had been topic to essentially the most bias in opposition to them throughout their latest four-year tenure within the first division. The membership doesn’t appear to have been any luckier by way of refereeing this 12 months, as they presently sit low within the second league desk and are liable to getting relegated to a fair decrease degree of competitors. Chievo, Dijon, Hannover 96, and Fulham additionally haven’t been in a position to catch a break with regard to referee bias during the last decade.
Two Sides to the Story
We dive in a bit of deeper, precisely which referees are inclined to favour some golf equipment or make life more durable for others.
The referees that confirmed essentially the most bias towards explicit European soccer golf equipment within the final 10 years had been as follows:
- • Eduardo Prieto Iglesias towards Getafe CF (La Liga) – 2.80
- • Luca Prieto towards Bologna (Serie A) – 2.50
- • Hakim Ben El Hadj towards Nîmes (Ligue 1) – 2.20
- • Peter Gagelmann towards Borussia Dortmund (Bundesliga) – 2.14
- • Mike Jones towards Tottenham Hotspur (English Premier League) – 2.17
The referees that confirmed essentially the most bias in opposition to explicit European soccer golf equipment within the final 10 years had been the next:
- • Antonio Miguel Mateu Lahoz in opposition to Rayo Vallecano (La Liga) – -2.28
- • Andrea De Marco in opposition to Udinese (Serie A) – -2.60
- • Alexandre Castro in opposition to PSG, Amaury Delerue in opposition to Troyes, Olivier Thual in opposition to Monaco (Ligue 1) – -2.20
- • Manuel Gräfe in opposition to Hannover 96 (Bundesliga) – -2.15
- • Peter Bankes in opposition to Newcastle United (English Premier League) – -2.40
Utilizing information based mostly on referees that had officiated matches of explicit golf equipment not less than 10 occasions, Spanish referee Javier Estrada Fernández would possibly secretly be pulling for Actual Madrid of their video games. His bias rating is 0.54 factors greater than the rating for the following most biased referee for a selected membership. That being stated, wanting solely at La Liga, it’s really Getafe FC who’ve been topic to essentially the most beneficial refereeing, overseen by Eduardo Prieto Iglesias.
Serie A has some referees who would possibly particularly have it out for sure golf equipment – going again to the graph of referees who’ve officiated not less than 10 matches of a given membership, Fabrizio Pasqua has proven essentially the most bias in opposition to the membership Cagliari. In our Serie A-only graph, referee Andrea De Marco has been essentially the most brazenly biased – in opposition to Udinese.
Numbers Don’t Lie
Typically, our information exhibits that refereeing in La Liga is harsher than in different leagues – their officers hand out yellow and crimson playing cards extra usually than in every other prime European soccer league. Consequently, lots of the world’s most carded golf equipment had been additionally from the Spanish prime division.
Quantifying referee bias is hard, as a result of it’s almost not possible to show if a membership is genuinely being handled unfairly. Fortunately, information and statistics can at all times, on the very least, shed some mild on the difficulty and spotlight key factors. The folks over at FootyStats perceive this, which is why they supply complete, thorough information for all issues soccer. Whether or not or not it’s participant, membership, or league-related info, you should utilize all of it to make extra knowledgeable and correct predictions on soccer video games and occasions. Head over now to expertise the FootyStats distinction.
Methodology and Limitations
For this research, we gathered recreation information from the 5 largest leagues in European soccer (English Premier League, La Liga, Serie A, Bundesliga, and Ligue 1) from the final 10 years utilizing the FootyStats API. Because of this, we acquired match information for 18,227 matches. We filtered out matches for which card information and referee identify wasn’t reported, leaving us with 9,960 matches. For every match, we recorded the house and away golf equipment, the variety of yellow and crimson playing cards given to each golf equipment, and the referee in command of the match. Utilizing this info, we had been in a position to analyse referee behaviour individually, towards every membership, and in opposition to every membership.
No statistical testing was carried out, so the claims listed above are based mostly on means alone. As such, this content material is exploratory and is introduced for informational functions solely. The API pull occurred throughout August 2021.
Truthful Use Assertion
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